Kirant Mundhum Religion
The Kirant Mundhum Religion also known as the Kitati Mundhum and is the religion of the Kirat people of Nepal.
According to some scholars, such as Tom Woodhatch, it is a blend of animism, ancestor worship, Hinduism and Buddhism.
Mundhum or Kiranti Veda (also known as Peylan) is the religious scripture and folk literature of the Kirat people of Nepal and is central to Kirat Mundhum. Mundhum means "the power of great strength" in the Kirati languages. The Mundhum covers many aspects of the Kirat culture, customs and traditions that existed before Vedic civilization in South Asia.
The Mundhum for each tribe consists of customs, habits, rituals, traditions, and myths passed down from the Kirati tribe's ancestors. The Mundhum also distinguishes each Kiranti tribe from other Kiranti and non-Kirantis as well.
In the Kirant Mundhum Religion the mundhum is organized into two parts — Thungsap and Peysap.
The Mundhum extends beyond religion, serving as a guide for culture, ritual and social values. Mundhum is written in ancient Kiranti languages and versions vary amongst the various Kirat tribes, serving as each tribe's distinctive culture. It also frames their social identity and unity in relation to other tribes and peoples.
The Thungsap Mundhum is the original part and was originally passed down orally prior to the art of writing. It is referred to as the oral Mundhum in books. It was an epic recited in songs by the learned Sambas or poets. The Kirat priests in the beginning were called the Sambas where, Sam means song and, Ba means the one who (male) knows the Song or Sam.
In the Kirant Mundhum Religion the Peysap Mundhum is a written book about religion. It is divided into four parts. They are the Soksok Mundhum, Yehang Mundhum, Sapji Mundhum and Sap Mundhum. The Soksok Mundhum contains the stories of creation of the universe, the beginning of mankind, the cause and effect of the sins, the creation of evil spirits, such as the evil spirits of Envy, Jealousy and Anger and the cause and effect of death in childhood.
The Peysap Mundhum is a written book about religion. It is divided into four parts: the Soksok Mundhum, Yehang Mundhum, Sapji Mundhum and Sap Mundhum.
The Soksok Mundhum contains the stories of creation of the universe, the beginning of mankind, the cause and effect of the sins, the creation of evil spirits, such as the evil spirits of envy, jealousy and anger and the cause and effect of death in childhood.
The Yehang Mundhum contains the story of the first leader of mankind who made laws for the sake of improvement of human beings from the stage of animal life to the enlightened life and ways to control them by giving philosophy on spiritualism.
The Sapji Mudhum states the spirits are of two classes: the Good Spirit and the Bad Spirit. As the Kirat people in the beginning were rationalistic idolaters, they neither had temples, altars nor images, conceiving that none of these was necessary, but that the God resided in light and fire.
They worshiped spirits whom they believe to be the residents of fire and the sun.
The Good Spirit
The Bad Spirit
The Inspiring Spirit
The Tantric Feat in Kirat Mundhum
The Spirit of Envy and Jealousy
Mundhum is a spiritual, rhythmic and shamanic form of scripture. Mundhum rituals and teachings are only used and performed by a Kirat religious master or shamanic guru of Kirant.
The supreme deity Tagera Nyingmaphuma is personified as Lord Shiva.
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